Mr. Markham has served as a member of our board of directors since December 2009. Since November 2004, Mr. Markham has been a partner at Care Capital, LLC, a venture capital firm. From May 2002 to August 2004, he was the Vice Chairman of the Management Board and Chief Operating Officer of Aventis SA, a pharmaceutical company. Prior to that, he was the Chief Executive Officer of Aventis Pharma AG, a pharmaceutical company; Chief Executive Officer of Hoechst Marion Roussel, Inc., a pharmaceutical company; and President and Chief Operating Officer of Marion Merrell Dow, Inc., a pharmaceutical company. From 1973 to 1993, Mr. Markham was associated with Merck & Co., a pharmaceutical company, culminating in his position as President and Chief Operating Officer. Since 2007, Mr. Markham has served as a member of the board of directors of NephroGenex, Inc. and as its board chairman since October 2013. Since 2008, he has also served on the board of directors of CoLuid Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Previously, Mr. Markham served on the board of directors of Acura Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Commerce Bank of Kansas City. Mr. Markham received a B.S. in pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences from Purdue University.